In Visual Studio and many other Windows applications you can use CTRL+DEL to delete the word to the right of the cursor. If you’re in the middle of a word, it only deletes the portion that’s to the right of your cursor.
At least in Visual Studio with SHIFT+DEL or CTRL-X the complete line can be deleted. The content is put to the clipboard. CTRL+D duplicates the current line. For cutting a line after the cursor there is no single shortcut: you have to press SHIFT+END for selecting the rest of the line. Then use DEL for deleting the selection.